I – ( I, they, we, you ): s + v(inf) *negative : s + do + not Ex : we go *neg: we do not go.
II – (she, he, it): s + v + s most of verbs * s + does + not +v(inf); Ex: he eats – he does not eat
es verbs ending (o, sh, ch, s, x) ; Ex: she goes *neg: she does not go.
ies y after consonant ; Ex: it tries *neg: it does not try.
Do not = don't ; does not = doesn't
"wh" questions except Who Wh + (do / does) + s + v(inf) + ?
Present continuous: (not finished actions in present, used with: now, at this moment …)
s + (am/is/are) + v + ing * negative: s + (am/is/are) + not + v+ ing
is not = isn't ; are not = aren't
"wh" questions Wh + (am/is/are) + s + v + ing + ?
Simple future: (future actions, used with adv. tomorrow, next …….
s + (will /shall) + v(inf) *negative: s + (will /shall) + not + v(inf) Ex: I 'll leave *neg: I will not leave.
Will not = won't ; I will = I'll
"wh" questions Wh + (will/shall) + s + v + ?
* Sometimes we use "going to" to express intentions: Ex: I'm going to visit Ghardia next summer.
We can join simultaneous actions using past continuous using: while, as, when,
We can join not finished action (p.con) with a finished action (p.sim) using: while, as, when, suddenly
We were having lunch while it was raining out. / he was watching the news when his father came.
Expressing abilityI know to do something): s +(can/could)+ v(inf) *neg: s +(can/could)+not+ v(inf)
Ex : when I was 3 years, I couldn't run fat but now I can do it. Could not = couldn't, can not=can't
Expressing obligation /necessity: s + must + v(inf) *neg: s + must + not + v(inf) must not=mustn't
Sana is ill. She must stay in bed.
Expressing (possibility/permission/suggestions) : s + (may/might)+v(inf)
*neg: …(may/might) + not + v(inf) ex : He might be right he might not be right
Conditional type 1: We use the first conditional to talk about things that are possible in the future.
If + verb in present simple…, …(will/will not) Ex: if it rains, I will stay at home
It contains the if clause and the result
Conditional type 2: We use the second conditional to talk about the present, and to image something, totally different from the real situation now or in the future. If +...verb in past simple,…would/wouldn't
Ex: if I knew the answer, I would tell you.
Comparison form: We use it to compare two things.
1 – Short adjectives: ….(to be) + adj + er + than +……English is easier than French. (adj : easy )
2 – Long adjectives: …(to be) + more+ adj + than +… She is more nervous than me. (adj. nervous)